The nervous system is our most complex organ system. Despite its complexity, it consists of mainly two cell types: neurons, which transmit, process, and store information, and glial cells, which support neurons in many different ways. Of all cells in the body, neurons have by far the most complex morphology. During development, they extend a number of thin cellular processes, first one axon, which sends electrical signals to the next cell and can reach a length of several meters, and then several shorter, highly branched dendrites, that act as signal receivers. A fundamental and yet unanswered question in biology remains how neurons assume their complex and highly polarized shapes. Neurons are born as simple, spherical cells. They start extending their axon either during the process of cell migration or after…

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