Natural Language Processing

The below lists various natural language processing techniques which use AI or ML.

Natural Language Processing


  • – NLP using Semantic Folding, language intelligence using principles of the human neocortex.
  • iLexIR NLP Consultancy
  • – have a multi-lingual natural language understanding technology that we are ready to load and create products for language learning, machine translation, digital assistant/IoT conversation and more
  • Meaning and the Problem of Universals – Subtitled a “Kantian-Friesian approach”, an article by Kelley L. Ross. A historical survey of the problem of universals.
  • Emergent Ontologies – A lecture by Gregory Ulmer, University of Florida, part of the Open Philosophy series at European Graduate School.
  • Logic and Ontology – Review of the historical relation between logic and ontology and of the opposition between the views of logic as language and logic as calculus.
  • The Role of Logic and Ontology in Language and Reasoning – This article analyzes the design of automated systems for reasoning in terms of Peirce’s semiotics and Wittgenstein’s language games.
  • The Philosophy of Bernard Bolzano: Logic and Ontology – A selection of critical judgements on the philosophy of Bernard Bolzano, with a focus on his contributions to logic and ontology.
  • On the Logic of the Ontological Argument – Article by Paul E. Oppenheimer and Edward N. Zalta which presents a formalization of the ontological argument.
  • On the Origins of Analytic Philosophy – Review of the German and Austrian traditions of post-Kantian philosophy. Austrian philosophy is characterized by a concentration on problems of logic, language and ontology.
  • Vagueness, Logic, and Ontology – Article by Achille Varzi about vagueness of boundaries in definitions and categories.
  • Logic and Formal Ontology – Essay that begins with an exposition of Husserl’s act-based conception of what a science is, and goes on to consider his account of the role of linguistic meanings, of the ontology of scientific objects, and of evidence and truth.
  • Logical Properties – Patricia Blanchette reviews this book by Colin McGinn. From Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  • Essence, the metaphysical ground of logic and language – The bankruptcy of logic, the stultification of reason and the meaninglessness of all views, by Colin L. Dean
  • Relating ontology and logic – The thesis of this book is that Russell’s work in logic cannot be understood separately from his ontological ideas, here somewhat archaically labeled “metaphysical”.
  • Issues of logic, algebra and topology in ontology – The interpretation of the symbols involved in a case study of geometric logic, being aided by a presentation of the logic as a sequent calculus.
  • Why are logic and ontology prior to language? – A review on the picture theory and the expressive theory of language and a possible conciliation, by Berislav Žarnić.
  • To Be and to Belong – Lecture on the fundamentals of philosophy by Juan José Luetich. Definitions are the undertaking of ontology; confronting definitions engages the field of dialectics; logic completes the circle, acting to obtain new definitions.
  • Semantics and Ontology in Quantified Modal Logic – Discussion about how to individuate a single formal system as paradigmatic for a philosophical view, by Stefano Borgo and Claudio Masolo.
  • Diagrams (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) – Article from the encyclopedia edited by Zalta, Nodelman and Allen (Metaphysics Research Lab – Center for the Study of Language and Information – Stanford University).
  • Bibliography of Research in Natural Language Generation – A part of the Computer Science Bibliography Collection, providing references for papers published through 1994. Searchable, browsable.
  • Language Technologies Institute – A research program at Carnegie Mellon University, focusing on machine translation and speech processing. Includes news, admissions procedures, staff profiles and current projects.
  • Mingsee, Inc. – Develops systems which enable computers to analyse and “understand” text by using proprietary algorithms.
  • Natural Language FAQs – Selected FAQ lists from Usenet groups related to natural language processing.
  • Link Grammar – A formalism for the computational parsing of English. Includes parser with downloadable source code, English-to-German translator, documentation, bibliography.
  • VerbMobil – Mobile translation system for the translation of spontaneous speech in face-to-face situations.
  • PetaMem – Corporation developing natural language technology solutions for global business. Includes corporate information, some online demos and catalog of services.
  • Australasian Language Technology Association – Information about language technology in Australia and New Zealand. Includes mailing lists, general information, and links to research and training in Australasia.
  • European Language Resources Association (ELRA) – A nonprofit organization serving the commercial language resource community. Site features quarterly newsletter, official definition of “language resource”, and member services.
  • EAGLES: Expert Advisory Group on Language Engineering Standards – A European Commission initiative to provide standards for linguistic engineering applications such as corpora, lexicons, mark-up languages and software. Contains current guidelines.
  • Clyr Inc. – Create custom natural language processing software.
  • Language Technology World – A portal on the range of technologies that deal with human language. News, conferences, projects, organisations, systems, and resources.
  • CMU AI Repository – NLP area – Machine readable parts of NLP textbooks, NLP corpora and dictionaries, fonts, and software.
  • The European Language Resource Distribution Agency (ELDA) – The practical arm of the ELRA agency, dedicated to solving practical and legal problems in the distribution of language resources. Legal information, catalog of resources for sale, current projects.
  • The Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) – International professional society dedicated to research throughout the field of natural language processing and computational linguistics.
  • Computational Morphology and Phonology – A list of online resources related to computational morphology and phonology.
  • Morphological Parsing – Downloads and documentation for the PC-KIMMO morphological parser, as well as background information and research in computational morphology.
  • Introduction to Computational Phonology – Brief course on the fundamentals of this field, by Dafydd Gibbon. Includes basics of computing phonotactics and phonological parsing.
  • The Xtag Project – Aims to develop a wide-coverage grammar of the English language, using a lexicalized tree adjoining grammar formalism. The current version of Xtag, as well as general resources for tree adjoining grammars.
  • Statistical NLP and Corpus-Based Computational Linguistics Resources – Chris Manning’s annotated list of resources in the field of statistical natural language processing and the closely related corpus-based computational linguistics. Corpora, treebanks, models, tools/systems, literature, courses and other resources.
  • ILK: Induction of Linguistic Knowledge – A research program at Tilburg University in the Netherlands, aimed at using inductive learning technology to advance both language engineering and the understanding of linguistic knowledge. Publications, downloadable software, and text analysis demos.
  • EuroWordNet – A project to compile compatible wordnets for seven European languages. Documentation, project reports, and downloadable database samples.
  • Global Wordnet Association – A society dedicated to the collection and standardization of wordnets, corpora, and other basic language processing tools. List of current and pending wordnets.
  • Introduction to Language Technology Research – Introductory information and a directory of resources in theoretical and applied computational linguistics.
  • Learning Computational Grammars – A European research project which ran from 1998 to 2001, exploring the possibility of expanding computational grammars through machine learning. Publications, demos, project information.
  • SIGMORPHON: ACL Special Interest Group in Computational Morphology and Phonology – A subgroup of the Association for Computational Linguistics which supports computer-based research in phonology and morphology. Formerly SIGPHON.
  • What is Computational Linguistics – A concise introduction to the field, by Hans Uszkoreit.
  • SIGSEM: ACL Special Interest Group on Computational Semantics – A subgroup of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL), dedicated to promoting research in all aspects of computational semantics. Supports the organization of the IWCS and ICoS workshops/conferences.
  • SIGGEN: ACL Special Interest Group on Natural Language Generation – A subgroup of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) which aims to provide a forum for the discussion, dissemination and archiving of research topics and results in the field of text generation.
  • SIGHAN: ACL Special Interest Group on Chinese Language Processing – A subgroup of the Association of Computational Linguistics (ACL) which seeks to promote interest in all aspects of Chinese Language Processing (CLP), e.g. morphological analysis and word segmentation, parsing, lexicons and semantic and pragmatic analysis, machine translation, and information retrieval and extraction.
  • SIGMOL: ACL Special Interest Group for Mathematics of Language – A subgroup of the Association of Computational Linguistics (ACL) which concentrates on the formal side of computational linguistics based on logic, continuous and discrete maths, and also statistics. Its biannual meetings (called MOL) usually focus on formal grammar, formal properties of languages, and model-theoretic and proof-theoretic methods in linguistics.
  • SEMITIC: ACL Special Interest Group on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages – A subgroup of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) which promotes interest in Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing approaches to Semitic Languages.
  • The Computation and Language E-Print Archive – A fully automated archive of papers in computational linguistics, natural language processing, speech processing etc. LaTeX sources often available.
  • International Committee on Computational Linguistics – Organizes the worldwide COLING conference. Information on the nature of COLING, past COLING proceedings, and hosting future COLINGs.
  • Speech Prosody at Bell Labs – Current research on non-lexical aspects of speech and paralinguistic communication. General information, downloadable papers, and multilingual text-to-speech demo.
  • WordNet Search – 3.0 – Like a super-thesaurus, search results display semantic as well as lexical results including synonyms, hierarchical subordination, antonyms, holonyms, and entailment. With glossary.
  • WordNet Bibliography – A comprehensive list of research publications involving the WordNet lexical database.
  • SIGLEX: ACL Special Interest Group on the Lexicon – A subgroup of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) which promotes research on lexical issues ranging from lexicography and the use of online dictionaries to computational lexical semantics. Organizes the SemEval semantic evaluations and the SENSEVAL word-sense evaluation exercises.
  • Jurafsky, Daniel – Stanford University professor whose research includes machine learning, parsing and computational psycholinguistics. Current research, syllabi, and archive of publications available.
  • Computational Linguistics FAQ – Frequently asked questions about Computational Linguistics, intended for people not familiar with this field. Originally compiled by Martin Volk, now part of the ACL Wiki.
  • AYLIEN Text Analysis API is a package of Natural Language Processing, Information Retrieval and Machine Learning tools for extracting meaning and insight from textual and visual content with ease



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